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    公众号后台开发(SpingMVC接收与响应公众号消息)

    1.准备

    1.准备服务

    与微信对接的url要具备以下条件:

    (1)在公网上能够访问

    (2)端口只支持80端口

      在这里如果是公网能够访问的服务最好,也可以通过花生壳或者其他外网映射工具进行映射,比如ngrok

    2.数据交互原理

      开发模式与编辑模式是互斥的,打开开发模式的时候,编辑模式的自动回复与自定义菜单失效;打开编辑模式的自动回复或者自定义菜单的时候开发模式会失效。

    分享图片

     

     

    开发模式的数据交互原理如下:

    分享图片

     

      我们需要开发的任务就是维信公众号服务器,包括业务逻辑、身份验证等操作。

    2.接入后台

      参考公众号开发文档:   开发->开发者工具-》开发者文档,里面有类似于对接钉钉的文档,有接入指南以及其他接口文档。

      https://developers.weixin.qq.com/doc/offiaccount/Getting_Started/Overview.html

    1.  第一步:填写服务器配置

    分享图片

     

    2 第二步:验证消息的确来自微信服务器(在自己的微信服务器进行验证)

      开发者提交信息后,微信服务器将发送GET请求到填写的服务器地址URL上,GET请求携带参数如下表所示:

    分享图片

     

    开发者通过检验signature对请求进行校验(下面有校验方式)。若确认此次GET请求来自微信服务器,请原样返回echostr参数内容,则接入生效,成为开发者成功,否则接入失败。加密/校验流程如下:

    1)将token、timestamp、nonce三个参数进行字典序排序 2)将三个参数字符串拼接成一个字符串进行sha1加密 3)开发者获得加密后的字符串可与signature对比,标识该请求来源于微信

    SpringMVC接收代码如下:

    package cn.qlq.controller.weixin;
    
    import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
    import org.slf4j.Logger;
    import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseBody;
    
    import cn.qlq.controller.UserController;
    import cn.qlq.utils.weixin.WeixinCheckUtils;
    
    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("weixin")
    public class WeixinController {
    
        private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UserController.class);
    
        @ResponseBody
        @RequestMapping("index")
        public String index(@RequestParam(required = false) String signature,
                @RequestParam(required = false) String timestamp, @RequestParam(required = false) String nonce,
                @RequestParam(required = false) String echostr) {
    
            logger.debug("signature: {}, timestamp: {}, nonce: {}, echostr: {}", signature, timestamp, nonce, echostr);
    
            if (StringUtils.isNoneBlank(signature, timestamp, nonce)
                    && WeixinCheckUtils.checkSignature(signature, timestamp, nonce)) {
                return echostr;
            }
    
            return "error";
        }
    }

     

    验证工具如下:

    package cn.qlq.utils.weixin;
    
    import java.security.MessageDigest;
    import java.util.Arrays;
    
    public class WeixinCheckUtils {
    
        // token,与微信公众号后台的一致
        private static final String token = "devqiaolq";
    
        public static boolean checkSignature(String signature, String timestamp, String nonce) {
            String[] arr = new String[] { token, timestamp, nonce };
    
            // 排序
            Arrays.sort(arr);
    
            // 生成字符串
            StringBuffer content = new StringBuffer();
            for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
                content.append(arr[i]);
            }
    
            // sha1加密
            String temp = getSha1(content.toString());
            return temp.equals(signature);
    
        }
    
        public static String getSha1(String str) {
            if (str == null || str.length() == 0) {
                return null;
            }
    
            char hexDigits[] = { ‘0‘, ‘1‘, ‘2‘, ‘3‘, ‘4‘, ‘5‘, ‘6‘, ‘7‘, ‘8‘, ‘9‘, ‘a‘, ‘b‘, ‘c‘, ‘d‘, ‘e‘, ‘f‘ };
    
            try {
                MessageDigest mdTemp = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA1");
                mdTemp.update(str.getBytes("UTF-8"));
    
                byte[] md = mdTemp.digest();
                int j = md.length;
                char buf[] = new char[j * 2];
                int k = 0;
                for (int i = 0; i < j; i++) {
                    byte byte0 = md[i];
                    buf[k++] = hexDigits[byte0 >>> 4 & 0xf];
                    buf[k++] = hexDigits[byte0 & 0xf];
                }
                return new String(buf);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                return null;
            }
        }
    }

     

      注意:如果有登录过滤器,记得在过滤器中放行微信请求.

     

    3. 第三步:依据接口文档实现业务逻辑

    1. 首先需要启用开发者模式:(启用开发者模式之后自己的自定义菜单就不会生效)

    分享图片

    2. 接收与响应文字消息

      当普通微信用户向公众账号发消息时,微信服务器将POST消息的XML数据包到开发者填写的URL上。

    文本消息的xml数据格式如下:

    <xml>
      <ToUserName><![CDATA[toUser]]></ToUserName>
      <FromUserName><![CDATA[fromUser]]></FromUserName>
      <CreateTime>1348831860</CreateTime>
      <MsgType><![CDATA[text]]></MsgType>
      <Content><![CDATA[this is a test]]></Content>
      <MsgId>1234567890123456</MsgId>
    </xml>

     

    参数解释:

    参数 描述
    ToUserName 开发者微信号
    FromUserName 发送方帐号(一个OpenID)
    CreateTime 消息创建时间 (整型)
    MsgType 消息类型,文本为text
    Content 文本消息内容
    MsgId 消息id,64位整型

     

    (1)建立后台对应的TextMessage实体类:

    package cn.qlq.bean.weixin;
    
    public class TextMessage {
    
        /**
         * 开发者微信号
         */
        private String ToUserName;
    
        /**
         * 发送方帐号(一个OpenID)
         */
        private String FromUserName;
    
        /**
         * 消息创建时间 (整型)
         */
        private long CreateTime;
    
        /**
         * text
         */
        private String MsgType;
    
        /**
         * 文本消息内容
         */
        private String Content;
    
        /**
         * 消息id,64位整型
         */
        private String MsgId;
    
        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return "TextMessage{" + "ToUserName=‘" + ToUserName + ‘\‘‘ + ", FromUserName=‘" + FromUserName + ‘\‘‘
                    + ", CreateTime=" + CreateTime + ", MsgType=‘" + MsgType + ‘\‘‘ + ", Content=‘" + Content + ‘\‘‘
                    + ", MsgId=‘" + MsgId + ‘\‘‘ + ‘}‘;
        }
    
        public String getToUserName() {
            return ToUserName;
        }
    
        public void setToUserName(String toUserName) {
            ToUserName = toUserName;
        }
    
        public String getFromUserName() {
            return FromUserName;
        }
    
        public void setFromUserName(String fromUserName) {
            FromUserName = fromUserName;
        }
    
        public long getCreateTime() {
            return CreateTime;
        }
    
        public void setCreateTime(long createTime) {
            CreateTime = createTime;
        }
    
        public String getMsgType() {
            return MsgType;
        }
    
        public void setMsgType(String msgType) {
            MsgType = msgType;
        }
    
        public String getContent() {
            return Content;
        }
    
        public void setContent(String content) {
            Content = content;
        }
    
        public String getMsgId() {
            return MsgId;
        }
    
        public void setMsgId(String msgId) {
            MsgId = msgId;
        }
    
    }

     

    (2)编写工具类实现xml(接收的是xml格式的数据)转map和TextMessage对象转换成xml(响应数据格式为xml)

    pom加入:

            <!--微信转换XML所需包 -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>dom4j</groupId>
                <artifactId>dom4j</artifactId>
                <version>1.6.1</version>
            </dependency>
            <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.thoughtworks.xstream/xstream -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.thoughtworks.xstream</groupId>
                <artifactId>xstream</artifactId>
                <version>1.4.10</version>
            </dependency>

     

    工具类:

    package cn.qlq.utils.weixin;
    
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.InputStream;
    import java.util.HashMap;
    import java.util.List;
    import java.util.Map;
    
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
    
    import org.dom4j.Document;
    import org.dom4j.DocumentException;
    import org.dom4j.Element;
    import org.dom4j.io.SAXReader;
    
    import com.thoughtworks.xstream.XStream;
    
    import cn.qlq.bean.weixin.TextMessage;
    
    public class MessageUtils {
    
        /**
         * xml数据转map
         *
         * @param request
         * @return
         * @throws IOException
         * @throws DocumentException
         */
        public static Map<String, String> xmlToMap(HttpServletRequest request) throws IOException, DocumentException {
            Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
            SAXReader reader = new SAXReader();
    
            InputStream inputStream = request.getInputStream();
            Document document = reader.read(inputStream);
    
            Element root = document.getRootElement();
            List<Element> list = root.elements();
    
            for (Element element : list) {
                map.put(element.getName(), element.getText());
            }
    
            inputStream.close();
            return map;
        }
    
        /**
         * 将文本消息对象转换成xml
         *
         * @param textMessage
         * @return
         */
        public static String textMessageToXml(TextMessage textMessage) {
            XStream xStream = new XStream();
            // 将xml的根元素替换成xml
            xStream.alias("xml", textMessage.getClass());
            return xStream.toXML(textMessage);
        }
    }

     

    (3)重写Controller接收消息和响应消息

    package cn.qlq.controller.weixin;
    
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.PrintWriter;
    import java.util.Date;
    import java.util.Map;
    
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
    
    import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
    import org.dom4j.DocumentException;
    import org.slf4j.Logger;
    import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
    
    import cn.qlq.bean.weixin.TextMessage;
    import cn.qlq.controller.UserController;
    import cn.qlq.utils.weixin.MessageUtils;
    import cn.qlq.utils.weixin.WeixinCheckUtils;
    
    @Controller
    @RequestMapping("weixin")
    public class WeixinController {
    
        private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UserController.class);
    
        @RequestMapping(value = "index", method = { RequestMethod.GET, RequestMethod.POST })
        public void index(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
    
            // 将请求、响应的编码均设置为UTF-8(防止中文乱码)
            request.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8"); // 微信服务器POST消息时用的是UTF-8编码,在接收时也要用同样的编码,否则中文会乱码;
            response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8"); // 在响应消息(回复消息给用户)时,也将编码方式设置为UTF-8,原理同上;
    
            String method = request.getMethod().toLowerCase();
            logger.info("method: {}", method);
    
            // 验证是否是微信请求
            if ("get".equals(method)) {
                doGet(request, response);
                return;
            }
    
            // POST请求接收消息,且给客户响应消息
            doPost(request, response);
        }
    
        /**
         * Post请求用于接收消息且处理消息之后回传消息
         * 
         * @param request
         * @param response
         * @throws IOException
         */
        private void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
            PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
            try {
                Map<String, String> map = MessageUtils.xmlToMap(request);
                String fromUserName = map.get("FromUserName");
                String toUserName = map.get("ToUserName");
                String msgType = map.get("MsgType");
                String content = map.get("Content");
                logger.info("map: {}", map);
    
                if (StringUtils.isNotBlank(content)) {
                    System.out.println("接收的的消息为:" + content + ",你可以根据关键字进行搜索或者做其他");
                }
    
                String message = null;
                if ("text".equals(msgType)) {
                    TextMessage textMessage = new TextMessage();
                    // 回传消息,所以讲fromuser和toUser交换
                    textMessage.setFromUserName(toUserName);
                    textMessage.setToUserName(fromUserName);
                    textMessage.setMsgType(msgType);
                    textMessage.setCreateTime(new Date().getTime());
                    textMessage.setContent("您发送的消息为: " + content);
                    logger.info("textMessage: {}", textMessage);
    
                    message = MessageUtils.textMessageToXml(textMessage);
                }
    
                out.print(message);// 把消息发送到客户端
            } catch (DocumentException e) {
                logger.error("dispose post request error", e);
            } finally {
                out.close();
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Get请求用于微信配置验证
         * 
         * @param request
         * @param response
         * @throws IOException
         */
        private void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
            String signature = request.getParameter("signature");// 微信加密签名
            String timestamp = request.getParameter("timestamp");// 时间戳
            String nonce = request.getParameter("nonce");// 随机数
            String echostr = request.getParameter("echostr");// 随机字符串
            logger.info("signature: {}, timestamp: {}, nonce: {}, echostr: {}", signature, timestamp, nonce, echostr);
    
            if (StringUtils.isNoneBlank(signature, timestamp, nonce)
                    && WeixinCheckUtils.checkSignature(signature, timestamp, nonce)) {
                response.getWriter().write(echostr);
            }
        }
    }

     

    测试:

    分享图片

     

    Java服务器日志如下:

    2019-10-23 23:34:15.625 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-9] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : method: post2019-10-23 23:34:15.633 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-9] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : map: {MsgId=22503405793257008, FromUserName=o_qAo0u6Snhoc7Z45RfSxYatMWpo, CreateTime=1571844638, Content=怎么了, ToUserName=gh_fc4bd5c2fda8, MsgType=text}接收的的消息为:怎么了,你可以根据关键字进行搜索或者做其他2019-10-23 23:34:15.635 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-9] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : textMessage: TextMessage{ToUserName=‘o_qAo0u6Snhoc7Z45RfSxYatMWpo‘, FromUserName=‘gh_fc4bd5c2fda8‘, CreateTime=1571844855635, MsgType=‘text‘, Content=‘您发送的消息为: 怎么了‘, MsgId=‘null‘}2019-10-23 23:34:20.288 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-3] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : method: post2019-10-23 23:34:20.295 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-3] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : map: {MsgId=22503406289173072, FromUserName=o_qAo0u6Snhoc7Z45RfSxYatMWpo, CreateTime=1571844642, Content=什么意思, ToUserName=gh_fc4bd5c2fda8, MsgType=text}接收的的消息为:什么意思,你可以根据关键字进行搜索或者做其他2019-10-23 23:34:20.296 INFO 244500 --- [nio-8088-exec-3] cn.qlq.controller.UserController : textMessage: TextMessage{ToUserName=‘o_qAo0u6Snhoc7Z45RfSxYatMWpo‘, FromUserName=‘gh_fc4bd5c2fda8‘, CreateTime=1571844860296, MsgType=‘text‘, Content=‘您发送的消息为: 什么意思‘, MsgId=‘null‘}

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